Biomedicine (also called Western medicine, traditional medicine, or conventional medicine) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice. Biomedicine emphasizes standardized, evidence-based treatments that are validated by biological research, with officially trained physicians, nurses, and other licensed practitioners. Biomedicine can also refer to many other categories in areas related to health and biology. It has been the dominant system of medicine in the Western world for over a century. It includes many biomedical disciplines and specialty areas that usually contain the prefix “bio-” such as molecular biology , biochemistry , biotechnology , cell biology , embryology , nanobiotechnology , biological engineering , laboratory medical biology , cytogenetics, genetics, gene therapy, bioinformatics, biostatistics, systems biology, neurobiology, microbiology, virology, immunology, parasitology, physiology, pathology, anatomy, toxicology, and many others that typically concern life sciences as applied to medicine.